The expression of an Islamic political radicalism in Britain has been one of the most dramatic developments in recent decades. Islamic Radicalism and Multicultural Politics explores the nature of this phenomenon by analysing the origins of Islam and its historical contact with Western Europe and Britain, and the emergence of Islamic political radicalism in the Muslim world and in the West.
Tahir Abbas draws on historical analysis and contemporary case studies to explore the post-war immigration and integration of Muslim groups, the complex relations that exist between a secular liberal Britain and a diverse but multifaceted Islam, and the extent of social and economic inequalities that affect Muslims as individual citizens and in local area communities. He shows how violent extremism among British Muslims is in reality influenced by a range of issues, including the factors of globalisation and contemporary politics, media and culture. Analysing and dissecting public policy, Abbas offers suggestions for tackling the major social, political and economic questions facing British Muslims in the post-7/7 era.
An important contribution to the study of religion, ‘race’ and ethnicity in modern Britain, this accessible work will be of interest to anyone working in the field of Islamic studies, sociology and political radicalism.
‘Much of the commentary on Islam today is shrill and one-dimensional which further widens the gap between Muslims and non-Muslims. Because Tahir Abbas’ Islamic Radicalism and Multicultural Politics is reasoned, scholarly and aims to provide historical context it is a powerful corrective. Being both British and Muslim allows him to present us with a truly insider’s account.’ –Professor Akbar Ahmed, Ibn Khaldun Chair of Islamic Studies, American University
‘In the face of so many superficial denunciations of radical Islam in Britain, Tahir Abbas provides an account that is both broad in its historical coverage and profound in its social analysis. In his sweep of several centuries of South Asian Islamic thinking, Abbas includes the conflicts engendered by British colonialism, and the complex processes of immigration and settlement in Britain. He is especially good in his own speciality, the patterns of inequality in education and in the labour market, through which he shows how the global growth in radical thinking can articulate with domestic social disparities. Here is a distinctive voice entering the debate.’ – John R. Bowen, Washington University in St. Louis.
‘Terrorist incidents have created controversy about Islam and Muslims, and British Muslims have been part of this debate. Media and lay people take a very superficial view and blame Islam and Muslims for radicalisation. This book is an in-depth study of the causes of radicalisation of a section of British Muslims. It is a very useful study indeed and all those who want to understand this complex phenomenon should read the book: Dr Abbas has done a good job!’ – Dr. Asghar Ali Engineer, Centre for Study of Society and Secularism, India
‘A remarkable book, well researched, comprehensive in its coverage and highly relevant to contemporary British political concerns.’ – John Rex, Professor Emeritus, Department of Sociology, Warwick University
Preface 1. From the Historical to the Contemporary 2. Islamic Political Radicalism: Origins and Destinations 3. Post-war Immigration: Ethnicity, Identity and Spatiality 4. The Formation of Muslim Capital: Education, Employment and Entrepreneurialism 5. Neo-Orientalism and Islamophobia: The Media and Print News 6. The Political Philosophy of Multiculturalism and the ‘Modern Muslim’ 7. Islamist Identity Politics in the Context of Glocalisation 8. Muslims, Crime, Terror and the Law 9. British Islam Tomorrow and the Battle Ahead
Tahir Abbas is a leading social scientist specialising in the area of ethnic relations and Muslim minorities in the West. He is currently Associate Professor of Sociology at Fatih University, Istanbul.
Volume I of this new Routledge collection focuses on theories of education. The gathered materials explore and analyse the impact of the classical Islamic period in history and the developments in education which have emanated from it. Volume II focuses on education in Eastern Europe and Muslim Asia, capturing the essential issues in each of the countries studied, and how they vary across a vast region. The impact of culture and modernization on traditional societies, as well as the ways in which westernized modes of education are introduced, and the aspirations of youth are in turn determined.
Volume III looks at education in the Middle East and Muslim Africa. Islam has its origins in the Middle East, and today many of the challenges Muslims face in relation to Islam and education are concentrated in this region. Volume IV explores the education of Muslims in North America and Europe, and of minorities in advanced liberal secular democracies.
Islam and Education is fully indexed and includes a comprehensive introduction newly written by the editor.
Volume I: Defining the Topic
1. A. Akkari, ‘Education in the Middle East and North Africa: The Current Situation and the Future Challenges’, International Education Journal, 2004, 5, 2, 144–53.
2.G. Bahgat, ‘Education in the Gulf Monarchies: Retrospect and Prospect’, International Review of Education, 1999, 45, 2, 127–36.
3. J. C. Christopher and J. S. Fetzer, ‘Accommodation of Muslim Religious Practices in France, Britain, and Germany’, French Politics, 2003, 1, 1, 39–59.
4. C. M. Davidson, ‘From Traditional to Formal Education in the Lower Arabian Gulf, 1820–1971’, History of Education, 2008, 37, 5, 633–43.
5. M. Fandy, ‘Enriched Islam: The Muslim Crisis of Education’, Survival, 2007, 49, 2, 77–98.
6. Y. Y. Haddad, ‘Taming the Imams: European Governments and Islamic Preachers Since 9/11’, Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations, 2008, 19, 2, 215–35.
7. M. J. Halstead, ‘Towards a Unified View of Islamic Education’, Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations, 1995, 6, 1, 25–43.
8. N. Hanna, ‘Literacy and the “Great Divide” in the Islamic World, 1300–1800’, Journal of Global History, 2007, 2, 2, 175–93.
9. M. Hatina, ‘Restoring a Lost Identity: Models of Education in Modern Islamic Thought’, British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 2006, 33, 2, 179–97.
10. L. Herrera, ‘Education, Islam, and Modernity: Beyond Westernization and Centralization’, Comparative Education Review, 2004, 48, 3, 318–26.
11. J. O. Hunwick, ‘Islam in Africa: Challenging the Perceived’, in S. S. Reese (ed.), The Transmission of Learning in Islamic Africa (Brill, 2004), pp. 1–14.
12. B. D. Metcald, ‘Sacred Words, Sanctioned Practice, New Communities’, in B. D. Metcalf (ed.), Making Muslim Space in North America and Europe (University of California Press, 1996), pp. 1–27.
13. J. Moore, ‘Teaching about Islam in Secondary Schools: Curricular and Pedagogical Considerations’, Equity and Excellence in Education, 2006, 39, 3, 279–86.
14. L. Oddbjørn, ‘Religious Education, Communal Identity and National Politics in the Muslim World’, British Journal of Religious Education, 2004, 26, 3, 223–36.
15. M. Parker-Jenkins, ‘Equal Access to State Funding: The Case of Muslim Schools in Britain’, Race, Ethnicity and Education, 2002, 5, 3, 273–89.
16. R. Salih, ‘The Backward and the New: National, Transnational and Post-National Islam in Europe’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 2004, 30, 5, 995–1011.
17. S. Shah, ‘Educational Leadership: An Islamic Perspective’, British Educational Research Journal, 2006, 32, 3, 363–85.
18. S. Thobani, ‘The Dilemma of Islam as School Knowledge in Muslim Education’, Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 2007, 27, 1, 11–25.
19. A. W. Wiseman, ‘The Institutionalization of Mass Schooling as Marginalization or Opportunity in Islamic Nation-States’, in J. Zajda, K. Biraimah, and W. Gaudelli (eds.), Education and Social Inequality in the Global Culture (Springer, 2008), pp. 181–202.
20. R. Zia, ‘Transmission of Values in Muslim Countries: Religious Education and Moral Development in School Curricula’, in A. Benavot and C. Braslavsky (eds.), School Knowledge in Comparative and Historical Perspective (Springer, 2007), pp. 119–34.
Volume II: Education in Eastern Europe, Central Eurasia, South Asia, and South-East Asia
21. B. Agai, ‘Islam and Education in Secular Turkey: State Policies and the Emergence of the Fethullah Gulen Group’, in R. W. Hefner and M. Q. Zaman (eds.), Schooling Islam: The Culture and Politics of Modern Muslim Education (Princeton University Press, 2006), pp. 149–71.
22. R. Arjmand, ‘Educational Empowerment of the Religious Elite in Iran, in H. Daun and G. Walford (eds.), Educational Strategies Among Muslims in the Context of Globalization: Some National Case Studies (Brill, 2004), pp. 63–80.
23. A. Babuna, ‘The Bosnian Muslims and Albanians: Islam and Nationalism’, Nationalities Papers, 2004, 32, 2, 287–321.
24. H. Fathi, ‘Gender, Islam, and Social Change in Uzbekistan’, Central Asian Survey, 2006, 25, 3, 303–17.
25. A. M. E. Jones, ‘Muslim and Western Influences on School Curriculum in Post-War Afghanistan’, Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 2007, 27, 1, 27–40.
26. E. Karagiannis, ‘Political Islam in Uzbekistan: Hizb ut-Tahrir al-Islami’, Europe-Asia Studies, 2006, 58, 2, 261–80.
27. O. G. Ling and C. M. Fui, ‘They Play Soccer Too! Madrasah Education in Multicultural Singapore’, Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 2007, 27, 1, 73–84.
28. S. McCarthy, ‘If Allah Wills it: Integration, Isolation and Muslim Authenticity in Yunnan Province in China’, Religion, State and Society, 2005, 33, 2, 121–36.
29. G. Mehran, ‘The Paradox of Tradition and Modernity in Female Education in the Islamic Republic of Iran’, Comparative Education Review, 2003, 47, 3, 269–86.
30. M. J. Nelson, ‘Muslims, Markets, and the Meaning of a “Good” Education in Pakistan’, Asian Survey, 2006, 46, 5, 699–720.
31. M. K. Shavarini, ‘The Feminisation of Iranian Higher Education’, International Review of Education, 2005, 51, 4, 329–47.
32. Y. Sikand, ‘The Indian Madrassahs and the Agenda of Reform’, Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 2005, 25, 2, 219–48.
33. I. Silova, M. S. Johnson, and S. P. Heyneman, ‘Education and the Crisis of Social Cohesion in Azerbaijan and Central Asia’, Comparative Education Review, 2007, 51, 2, 159–80.
34. J. Spink, ‘Education and Politics in Afghanistan: The Importance of an Education System in Peacebuilding and Reconstruction’, Journal of Peace Education, 2005, 2, 2, 195–207.
35. J. Stark, ‘Contesting Models of Islamic Governance in Malaysia and Indonesia’, Global Change, Peace & Security, 2004, 16, 2, 115–31.
36. A. H. Tamuri, ‘Islamic Education Teachers’ Perceptions of the Teaching of Akhlq in Malaysian Secondary Schools’, Journal of Moral Education, 2007, 36, 3, 371–86.
37. P. Torsti, ‘How to Deal with a Difficult Past? History Textbooks Supporting Enemy Images in Post-War Bosnia and Herzegovina’, Journal of Curriculum Studies, 2007, 39, 1, 77–96.
38. H. Wai-Yip, ‘Teaching Islam to Educate Multiethnic and Multicultural Literacy: Seeking Alternative Discourse and Global Pedagogies in the Chinese Context’, Asian Ethnicity, 2008, 9, 2, 77–95.
39. S. Wattana, ‘Islam, Radicalism, and Violence in Southern Thailand: Berjihad di Patani and the 28 April 2004 Attacks’, Critical Asian Studies, 2006, 38, 1, 119–44.
40. M. L. Weiss, ‘Still with the People? The Chequered Path of Student Activism in Malaysia’, South East Asia Research, 2005, 13, 3, 287–332.
Volume III: Education in the Arab World and Africa
41. A. Abdeljalil, ‘Education in the Middle East and North Africa: The Current Situation and Future Challenges’, International Education Journal, 2004, 5, 2, 144–53.
42. M. Abdeljaouad, ‘Issues in the History of Mathematics Teaching in Arab Countries’, Paedagogica Historica: International Journal of the History of Education, 2006, 42, 4, 629–64.
43. A. A. Abdi, ‘Education in Somalia: History, Destruction, and Calls for Reconstruction’, Comparative Education, 1998, 34, 3, 327–40.
44. H. Al-Khaizaran, ‘Traditions of Moral Education in Iraq’, Journal of Moral Education, 2007, 36, 3, 321–32.
45. Z. Belhachmi, ‘Al-Salafiyya, Feminism and Reforms in Twentieth-Century Arab-Islamic Society’, The Journal of North African Studies, 2005, 10, 2, 111–41.
46. M. Bosbait and R. Wilson, ‘Education, School to Work Transitions and Unemployment in Saudi Arabia’, Middle Eastern Studies, 2005, 41, 4, 533–46.
47. A. Breidlid, ‘Education in the Sudan: The Privileging of an Islamic Discourse’, Compare: A Journal of Comparative Education, 2005, 35, 3, 247–63.
48. M. Ennaji, Multilingualism, Cultural Identity, and Education in Morocco (Brill, 2005), pp. 19–46.
49. I. F. Gesink, ‘Islamic Reformation: A History of Madrasa Reform and Legal Change in Egypt’, Comparative Education Review, 2006, 50, 3, 325–45.
50. M. H. Hafez, ‘Radicalization in the Persian Gulf: Assessing the Potential of Islamist Militancy in Saudi Arabia and Yemen’, Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict, 2008, 1, 1, 6–24.
51. M. Hatina, ‘Restoring a Lost Identity: Models of Education in Modern Islamic Thought’, British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 2006, 33, 2, 179–97.
52. C. Heristchi, ‘The Islamist Discourse of the FIS and the Democratic Experiment in Algeria’, Democratization, 2004, 11, 4, 111–32.
53. L. Herrera, ‘Islamization and Education: Between Politics, Culture and the Market’, in J. L. Esposito and F. Burgat (eds.), Modernizing Islam: Religion and the Public Sphere in the Middle East and Europe (Hurst & Co., 2003), pp. 167–89.
54. P. O. Ikoya and D. Onoyase, ‘Universal Basic Education in Nigeria: Availability of Schools’ Infrastructure for Effective Program Implementation’, Educational Studies, 2008, 34, 1, 11–24.
55. W. Jansen, ‘Gender and the Expansion of University Education in Jordan’, Gender and Education, 2006, 18, 5, 473–90.
56. R. D. Lee, ‘Tunisian Intellectuals: Responses to Islamism’, The Journal of North African Studies, 2008, 13, 2, 157–73.
57. N. L. Marrakchi, ‘A Case Study of Women’s Education within the Moroccan Development Model’, The Journal of North African Studies, 2008, 13, 1, 55–73.
58. A. Pargeter, ‘Libya: Reforming the Impossible?’, Review of African Political Economy, 2006, 33, 108, 219–35.
59. M. Prokop, ‘Saudi Arabia: The politics of Education’, International Affairs, 2003, 79, 1, 77–89.
60. Y. Yonah, ‘The Palestinian Minority in Israel: When Common Core Curriculum in Education Meets Conflicting National Narratives’, Intercultural Education, 2008, 19, 2, 105–17.
Volume IV: Muslim minorities in North America, Britain, Western Europe and Australia
61. I. Bagby, ‘The Mosque and the American Public Square’, in Z. H. Bukhari et al. (eds.), Muslims’ Place in the American Public Square: Hope, Fears, and Aspirations (Altamira Press, 2004), pp. 323–46.
62. N. H. Barazangi, ‘The Education of North American Muslim Parents and Children: Conceptual Change as a Contribution to Islamization of Education’, The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences, 1990, 7, 3, 385–402.
63. A. B. McCloud, ‘African-American Muslim Intellectual Thought’, Souls, 2007, 9, 2, 171–81.
64. G. M. M. Mostafa, ‘Learning and Cultural Experiences of Arab Muslim Graduate Students in a Canadian University’, Journal of Contemporary Issues in Education, 2006, 1, 1, 36–53.
65. J. Zine, ‘Safe Havens or Religious “Ghettos”? Narratives of Islamic Schooling in Canada’, Race Ethnicity and Education, 2007, 10, 1, 71–92.
66. T. N. Basit, ‘”I Want More Freedom, but Not Too Much”: British Muslim Girls and the Dynamism of Family Values’, Gender and Education, 1997, 9, 4, 425–40.
67. M. I. Dien, ‘Islamic Studies or the Study of Islam? From Parker to Rammell’, Journal of Beliefs & Values, 2007, 28, 3, 243–55.
68. K. Flynn, ‘Understanding Islam in Ireland’, Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations, 2006, 17, 2, 223–38.
69. M. Parker-Jenkins, ‘Equal Access to State Funding: The Case of Muslim Schools in Britain’, Race, Ethnicity and Education, 2002, 5, 3, 274–89.
70. Y. Suleiman and Y. Shihadeh, ‘Islam on Campus: Teaching Islamic Studies at Higher Education Institutions in the UK’, Journal of Beliefs & Values, 2007, 28, 3, 309–29.
71. D. A. Dimitris Antoniou, ‘Muslim Immigrants in Greece: Religious Organization and Local Responses’, Immigrants & Minorities, 2003, 22, 2, 155–74.
72. G. Driessen and M. Merry, ‘Islamic Schools in the Netherlands: Expansion or Marginalization?’, Interchange, 2006, 37, 3, 201–23.
73. A. Fuess, ‘Islamic Religious Education in Western Europe: Models of Integration and the German Approach’, Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 2007, 27, 2, 215–39.
74. L. J. Limage, ‘Education and Muslim Identity: The Case of France’, Comparative Education, 2000, 36, 1, 73–94.
75. B. Moldenhawer, ‘Transnational Migrant Communities and Education Strategies among Pakistani Youngsters in Denmark’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 2005, 31, 1, 51–78.
76. I. D. Clyne, ‘Cultural Diversity and the Curriculum: The Muslim Experience in Australia’, Intercultural Education, 1998, 9, 3, 279–89.
77. N. Kabir, ‘Muslims in a “White Australia”: Colour or Religion?’, Immigrants & Minorities, 2006, 24, 2, 193–223.
78. C. McMichael, ‘Everywhere is Allah’s Place: Islam and the Everyday Life of Somali Women in Melbourne, Australia’, Journal of Refugee Studies, 2002, 15, 2, 171–88.
79. U. Ozolins, ‘Diaspora, Islam, Australia: Reflections on Australian Arab Case Studies’, Journal of Australian Studies, 2007, 32, 2, 207–21.
80. G. Turner, ‘After Hybridity: Muslim-Australians and the Imagined Community’, Continuum: Journal of Media & Cultural Studies, 2003, 17, 4, 411–18.
Why are honour killings and honour-related violence (HRV) so important to understand? What do such crimes represent? And how does HRV fit in with Western views and perceptions of Islam? This distinctively comparative collection examines the concept of HRV against women in general and Muslim women in particular. The issue of HRV has become a sensitive subject in many South Asian and Middle Eastern countries and it has received the growing attention of the media, human rights groups and academics around the globe. However, the issue has yet to receive detailed academic study in the United Kingdom, particularly in terms of both legal and sociological research. This collection sets out the theoretical and ethical parameters of the study of HRV in order to address this intellectual vacuum in a socio-legal context. The key objectives of this book are: to construct, and to develop further, a theory of HRV; to rationalise and characterise the different forms of HRV; to investigate the role of religion, race and class in society within this context, in particular, the role of Islam; to scrutinise the role of the civil/criminal law/justice systems in preventing these crimes; and to inform public policy-makers of the potential policies that may be employed in combating HRV.
1. Introduction Mohammad Mazher Idriss 2. Honour-Related Violence Towards South Asian Muslim Women Tahir Abbas 3. The Silencing of Women from the Pakistani Muslim Mirpuri Community in Violent Relationships Zahira Latif 4. There is Nothing ‘Honourable’ About Honour Killings: Gender, Violence and the Limits of Multiculturalism Veena Meeto and Heidi Safia Mirza 5. Collective Crimes, Collective Victims: A Case Study into the Murder of Banaz Mahmod Joanne Lee Payton 6. Honour and Shame in Domestic Homicide: A Critical Analysis of the Provocation Defence Anna Carline 7. Does the Qur’an Condone Domestic Violence Sadia Kauser, Sjaad Hussain, Mohammad Mazher Idriss 8. The Construction of ‘Honour’ in Indian Criminal Law: An Indian Lawyer’s Perspective Geeta Ramaseshan 9. Men’s Violence and Women’s Responsibility: Mothers’ Stories about Honour Violence Åsa Eldén 10. Lack of Due Diligence: Judgments of Crimes of Honour in Turkey Leylâ Pervizat 11. A Comparative Study of the Reform Work Conducted in Asia and Europe to Combat Violence and So-Called Honour Murders Rana Husseini 12. Ending Honour Crimes in Sub Saharan Africa: Looking at a Long Hard Death Nancy Kaymar Stafford 13. Conversations Across Borders: Men and Honour Related Violence in the UK and Sweden Suruchi Thapar-Björkert 14. Tackling ‘Crimes of Honour:’ Evaluating the Social and Legal Responses to Combating Forced Marriages in the United Kingdom Samia Bano 15. Reconfiguring ‘Honour’-Based Violence as a Form of Gendered Violence Aisha Gill